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alberto7oconnor15

Fixing Flat Feet In Adults

Overview
Adult acquired flatfoot is often a complex disorder, with diverse symptoms and varying degrees of deformity and disability. There are several types of flatfoot, all of which have one characteristic in common-partial or total collapse (loss) of the arch. Other characteristics shared by most types of flatfoot include ?Toe drift,? where the toes and front part of the foot point outward. The heel tilts toward the outside and the ankle appears to turn in. A short Achilles tendon or calf muscle, which causes the heel to lift off the ground earlier when walking and may act as a deforming force. In addition, other deformities such bunions and hammertoes can occur and cause pain in people with flexible flatfoot. Health problems such as rheumatoid arthritis, diabetes and obesity can increase the risk of developing flatfoot and may (or may not) make it more difficult to treat. This article provides a brief overview of the problems that can result in AAFD. Further details regarding the most common conditions that cause an acquired flatfoot and their treatment options are provided in separate articles. Links to those articles are provided. Acquired flat feet

Causes
There are numerous causes of acquired Adult Flatfoot, including, trauma, fracture, dislocation, tendon rupture/partial rupture or inflammation of the tendons, tarsal coalition, arthritis, neuroarthropathy and neurologic weakness. The most common cause of acquired Adult Flatfoot is due to overuse of a tendon on the inside of the ankle called the posterior tibial tendon. This is classed as - posterior tibial tendon dysfunction. What are the causes of Adult Acquired flat foot? Trauma, Fracture or dislocation. Tendon rupture, partial tear or inflammation. Tarsal Coalition. Arthritis. Neuroarthropathy. Neurological weakness.

Symptoms
Pain and swelling around the inside aspect of the ankle initially. Later, the arch of the foot may fall (foot becomes flat), this change leads to walking to become difficult and painful, as well as standing for long periods. As the flat foot becomes established, pain may progress to the outer part of the ankle. Eventually, arthritis may develop.

Diagnosis
In the early stages of dysfunction of the posterior tibial tendon, most of the discomfort is located medially along the course of the tendon and the patient reports fatigue and aching on the plantar-medial aspect of the foot and ankle. Swelling is common if the dysfunction is associated with tenosynovitis. As dysfunction of the tendon progresses, maximum pain occurs laterally in the sinus tarsi because of impingement of the fibula against the calcaneus. With increasing deformity, patients report that the shape of the foot changes and that it becomes increasingly difficult to wear shoes. Many patients no longer report pain in the medial part of the foot and ankle after a complete rupture of the posterior tibial tendon has occurred; instead, the pain is located laterally. If a fixed deformity has not occurred, the patient may report that standing or walking with the hindfoot slightly inverted alleviates the lateral impingement and relieves the pain in the lateral part of the foot.

Non surgical Treatment
A patient who has acute tenosynovitis has pain and swelling along the medial aspect of the ankle. The patient is able to perform a single-limb heel-rise test but has pain when doing so. Inversion of the foot against resistance is painful but still strong. The patient should be managed with rest, the administration of appropriate anti-inflammatory medication, and immobilization. The injection of corticosteroids is not recommended. Immobilization with either a rigid below-the-knee cast or a removable cast or boot may be used to prevent overuse and subsequent rupture of the tendon. A removable stirrup-brace is not initially sufficient as it does not limit motion in the sagittal plane, a component of the pathological process. The patient should be permitted to walk while wearing the cast or boot during the six to eight-week period of immobilization. At the end of that time, a decision must be made regarding the need for additional treatment. If there has been marked improvement, the patient may begin wearing a stiff-soled shoe with a medial heel-and-sole wedge to invert the hindfoot. If there has been only mild or moderate improvement, a longer period in the cast or boot may be tried. Flat foot

Surgical Treatment
The indications for surgery are persistent pain and/or significant deformity. Sometimes the foot just feels weak and the assessment of deformity is best done by a foot and ankle specialist. If surgery is appropriate, a combination of soft tissue and bony procedures may be considered to correct alignment and support the medial arch, taking strain off failing ligaments. Depending upon the tissues involved and extent of deformity, the foot and ankle specialist will determine the necessary combination of procedures. Surgical procedures may include a medial slide calcaneal osteotomy to correct position of the heel, a lateral column lengthening to correct position in the midfoot and a medial cuneiform osteotomy or first metatarsal-tarsal fusion to correct elevation of the medial forefoot. The posterior tibial tendon may be reconstructed with a tendon transfer. In severe cases (stage III), the reconstruction may include fusion of the hind foot,, resulting in stiffness of the hind foot but the desired pain relief. In the most severe stage (stage IV), the deltoid ligament on the inside of the ankle fails, resulting in the deformity in the ankle. This deformity over time can result in arthritis in the ankle.

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